Any purchase of real estate is associated with the issuing of title documents. In Turkey, the owner receives a TAPU - a certificate of ownership. What is this document, what the registration procedure involves, and what has changed in the legislation in 2022 regarding the receipt of TAPU - read in our today's review.
Types of TAPU and why you should know about their variety
TAPU in Turkey is a single document that confirms real estate ownership. There are two types of TAPU: blue and red. A blue TAPU certifies the right to own a land plot, and a red TAPU gives the right to ownership of the commercial real estate, apartments, or villas. It is the fundamental difference between the two.
Imagine a situation: a seller intends to sell you ready-to-move-in real estate but provides you with a blue TAPU attached to the contract. What will you get as a result? Correct! Only the right for the land plot, but not to the real estate, located on this site.
Red TAPU, in its turn, means that real estate has been on the balance sheet at the mayor's office. Hence, a residential or commercial building has an operation permit - a registration certificate or Iskan, unlike real estate with a blue certificate.
You might wonder: what are the consequences of buying a property with a blue TAPU? First of all, you will have difficulties when resale. There may be problems with installing meters for water and electricity. Finally, in the worst scenario, the residential building you invested in can be demolished.
There have not been precedents like this. However, such a scenario is likely considering the constantly changing laws in Turkey.
Although the purchase of real estate with a blue TAPU is not always unacceptable when signing a buy-sale agreement for real estate. Real estate comes with a blue TARU when you buy real estate from the developer at the pit stage or under construction since the developer has not yet received a red TAPU for his premises but has all the permits for construction and land ownership rights. In this case, the contract for the land where the property is being constructed must be attached.
Some developers issue TAPU with the encumbrance, and the practice is common when applying for installments. As soon as the mortgage is fully paid, the encumbrance is removed and the buyer receives a red certificate.
You have found out what TAPU is - now let's move on to information about the changes that have been introduced this year.
Changes in obtaining TAPU
When receiving this document in the past, the line "owner" could contain one or sometimes two previous real estate owners. Currently, only the latest real estate owner is stated in the new certificate. The information about previous owners is no longer indicated since the online registration system stores the data.
The second change, which has affected only new buildings so far, is the calculation of the size of the real estate you bought. Now ownership certificate contains both gross and net area. You can find the data in the upper right corner, just below the photo. Bear in mind that since 2019, the certificate does not contain the owner's photo because all data is scanned and stored electronically in the online cadastral system.
Another change came in February 2022. When applying for a TAPU, the buyer must provide Döviz Alım Belgesi. What is it? It is an extract from the bank indicating that the buyer has the necessary amount equal to the cadastral value of the purchased real estate in his account. In other words, the buyer must put into his account an amount in euros or dollars equal to the cadastral value of the purchased real estate and then exchange it for Turkish lira. After the bank employee issues a certificate of the currency purchase, the buyer adds it to the set of documents for the Cadastral Department.
If several owners are registered in TAPU, their data (names, surnames, and passport numbers) must also be included in the dub extract.
In 2022, the changes also affected the timing of acquiring an ownership certificate. Today, after submitting documents to the Cadastral Office, the average waiting time is about ten working days. It means you will need to come for two weeks or sign and notarize a power of attorney. A reliable real estate agent can serve as a trustee or a person who can have an appointment at the Cadastral Chamber, sign, and pick up all the documents.
If you are not in the territory of the Republic of Turkey, have signed a buy-sale agreement online, and cannot currently visit the country, we recommend issuing power of attorney at the Turkish consulate in the country of residence. After that, we can take an extract from the notarial online registry and file and receive ownership in your name.
According to the latest information from our customers, the consulate makes appointments for issuing powers of attorney only in 3-4 weeks due to heavy workloads.
How much does it cost to obtain TAPU in Turkey?
In 2022, the estimated cost of TAPU is €1000–2000. It depends on the type of property: apartment, villa, commercial premises, or land. The final amount is set by public services, considering real estate costs, which include:
- Independent expertise – 2700 ₺ (Turkish Lira)
- Doviz Belgesi or currency exchange certificate
- Döner Sermaye or capital tax – ₺600–1200
- Maintaining the TAPU folder – 600 ₺
- Sworn translator services – 1000 ₺ (in Alanya)
- One-time real estate tax - 4% of the cadastral value
- Annual tax duty - 0.2%
You can get a more detailed idea of what TAPU looks like in Turkey if you understand the main terms used in this document.
Kat Mülkiyeti — ready for move-in real estate
Kat Irtifaki — indicates that the construction permit, TAPU, issued land plot is divided into plots assigned to every apartment
Ana Gayrimenkul — the location of the real estate
Ada No — plot number
Ilcesi — area, province
Mahallesi — district
Koyu — town, village
Mevkii — city
Sokagi — street
Block No — building numver
Parcel Kat No — floor
Yuzolcumu — land plot area
Niteliği — real estate intendent use
Devre Mülk — temporary/shared ownership
Apca payi — share of proportional land ownership
Bagimsiz Bölüm — information about real estate
Sahibi — name of the current owner (owners)
Edinme sebebi — name of the buyer, reason for purchase
It is important to note that the blue TAPU, issued for the land, must indicate the status of Arsa. The land plots not suitable for construction, but intended for agricultural activities, are called Tarla. Be sure to pay attention to the land status.
You can find the current database of real estate on our website. We offer a wide variety of real estate: from standard apartments to luxury villas. We provide favorable terms of purchase to our customers and fully assist in the process of a buy-sale agreement, including checking all documents for legal issues.